Four out of every five organ recipients are men, courtesy Gender Disparity


Indicating a significant healthcare imbalance due to gender disparity, records of National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO) revealed that between 1995 and 2021, four out of every five organ recipients were men. The low representation of women in organ transplants spelled out the urgent need of equitable access to healthcare for all, irrespective of gender.

Gender Disparity

As per records available with Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, out of the total 36640 transplants done from deceased and living donors, 29695 were done on male while 6945 were done on female between 1995 and 2021, which approximately amounted to 4 transplants done on male recipient against 1 transplant done on female recipient.

Year Total Transplants Male Female Ratio (Male: Female)
2019 12666 9162 3504 2.61:1
2020 7443 5389 2054 2.62:1
2021 12259 9120 3139 2.91:1
2022 16041 11273 4768 2.36:1


As per a statement given by Minister of State, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
Prof Satya Pal Singh Baghel the Government of India had implemented the National Organ Transplant Program under which steps have been taken to increase awareness on organ donation in the country. In order to narrow down the trend of gender disparity in organ transplants, regular awareness and sensitization sessions were being carried out by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on various ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation for different stakeholders, namely State Government representatives, Legal representatives, Police personnel, Non-Governmental Organizations, healthcare professionals of Institutions/Hospitals, etc.

Rise in number of organ transplants in India

NOTTO records revealed that a significant 16,041 organ transplant procedures including that of Kidney, Liver, Heart, Lungs, Pancreas and Small Bowel were done in 2022.
Of all the organ transplants kidney transplants were at 11,705 including 10,164 (Live) and 1541 (Cadaver). The second highest count of organ transplants done was of Liver pegged at 3911 including 3174 (Live) and 737 (Cadaver) respectively. Heart transplants stood at third spot in 2022 with a total of 387 followed by Lungs (144), Pancreas (26) and Small Bowel (3).

Role of NOTTO

The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization or NOTTO is an organization functional under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. It is entrusted with the task of regulating the activities for receiving, storage, distribution besides maintaining records of organs and tissue donation and transplantation carried out in the country.

Laws Related to Organ Donation in India

The Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994 was brought into effect to regulate receipt, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and for the prevention of commercial dealings in human organs.

Top Organ Donations Statewise 

State-wise Delhi topped the table in living donor transplants with 3753 transplants including Kidney (2193), Liver (1514), Heart (17) and Lungs (4). Tamil Nadu bagged stop spot in deceased donor transplants with 418 organs received from brain-dead patients including Kidney (276) and Liver (142) respectively.

Zero Organ Donation

States and Union Territories with zero organ donation and transplantations as witnessed in 2022 include Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Sikking, Nagaland, Tripura, Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshwadeep, Daman and Diu besides Dadra Nagar Haveli.

Top 10 states with maximum organ donation and transplants

State Kidney (Live) Kidney (Cadaver) Liver (Live) Liver (Cadaver) Heart Lungs Total
Delhi 2193 56 1514 25 17 4 3818
T N 1200 276 490 142 85 50 2245
Maharashtra 894 162 328 92 30 12 1525
Kerala 1092 28 331 13 0 6 1472
Telangana 427 260 228 171 28 65 1179
W B 1048 50 11 12 0 7 1128
Gujarat 617 252 62 124 20 0 1077
Karnataka 232 291 127 124 46 13 837
Rajasthan 552 14 28 5 3 0 604




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